Caregivers and PAS Workers A collage of personal assistants going about their work



About this project

This project concerns the PAS workforce, the people that provide the Personal Assistance Services. These workforce individuals are referred to by many names, including caregivers, personal care attendants, personal assistants and direct care workers. They may provide these services free of charge (informal PAS) or be paid (formal PAS); they may also be friends or family.

To help support individuals with disabilities, a larger and better prepared PAS workforce is required. In order to provide this, a better understanding of the PAS workforce is needed, along with assessments of existing workforce development interventions.

The PAS Center's workforce projects will continue the existing research of the PAS Center, studying the needs and unmet needs of formal and informal caregivers and developing tools and strategies for improving the retention of care workers.

  • Develop tools and supports for unpaid caregivers that reflect the changing needs of caregivers as they age.
    • Develop health promotion and education tools, supports and interventions to improve the health of caregivers and PAS users on health promotion. Study conducted by Robert Newcomer, Susan Chapman, and Mel Neri.
    • Examine the needs of children and family caregivers and the impact of family caregiving on employment. Study conducted by Amy Houtrow.
    • Analyze the needs and supports for aging minority caregivers. Study conducted by Anna Napoles and Letha Chadiha.
    • Develop strategies that lead to a PAS workforce that is geographically diverse and maximizes recruitment, retention, compensation and benefits, professional training, development, and networking.
      • Monitor and analyze PAS workforce trends and demographics. Study conducted by Stephen Kaye.
      • Analyze state geographic differences in workforce availability. Study conducted by Stephen Kaye.
      • Identify and track state strategies to improve the PAS workforce and evaluate the effectiveness of state efforts. Study conducted by Dorie Seavey and Abby Marquand at PHI.
    • Identify and evaluate interventions and labor resources, such as job training services that help to improve workforce capacity of PAS providers.
      • Identify and evaluate states strategies and training requirements to improve the PAS workforce. Study conducted by Dorie Seavey and Abby Marquand.
      • Train workers and PAS users on safety and injury prevention. Study conducted by Robert Newcomer, Susan Chapman, and Mel Neri.
      • Participate in and evaluate a collaborative community training program for PAS workers. Study conducted by Susan Chapman.

State by State Workforce Data and Resources AvailableMap of the United States

Number of Home and Personal Care Workers by State

The Center for PAS has tabulated, by state, the size and characteristics of the personal assistance workforce.

State Wages for Personal Care Aides, 2000 - 2010

This State Chart Book On wages For Personal And Home Care Aides (PCAs), 2000-2010, prepared by PHI, provides information on the wages received by PCAs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the nation over a decade‐long period.

View PCAs wage chart book

Workforce Development Projects in Personal Assistance Services

More than 100 recently funded and currently funded research and demonstration projects to expand and improve the Personal Assistance Services workforce in the U.S.A. can be searched by state, category, and major federal, state, or foundation initiative. (updated 1/20/05)

Workforce Facts

Chart gallery on the direct-care workforce in the US (from PHI) covering: Health Insurance, Industry Employment, Occupational Growth, Older Direct-Care Workers, Supply & Demand and Wages & Benefits.

View chart gallery.

State Profiles of the Direct Care Workforce

In September 2011, PHI launched the State Data Center, the first, web-based tool to provide comprehensive, state-by-state profiles of the direct-care workforce. The data source is the OES Survey. The Center profiles the direct-care workforce – nursing home aides, home health aides, and personal care assistants (including direct support professionals)—in every state. It provides easy-to-read, state-by-state charts with up-to-date, key direct-care workforce statistics, which can be easily downloaded and reproduced, featuring information on:

  • Workforce size and projected employment growth
  • Trends in wages for each direct-care occupation, and
  • Information on health insurance coverage rates and reliance on public assistance.

The new web-based data tool also features links to:

  • Legislation and regulatory developments pertaining to the workforce, such as summaries of pending or passed bills and regulatory actions
  • Notable state-based initiatives such as training programs, demonstration projects, matching service registries, person-centered care programs, and other efforts to improve the quality of care and direct-care worker jobs
  • Employer best practices, and
  • Resources, including state-specific surveys, demonstration projects, reports and recommendations.

Visit the: PHI State Data Center


Workforce Training Requirements

State Home Health Aide Training Requirements

Federal legislation requires that Medicare-certified home health agencies employ home health aides who are trained and evaluated through training programs approved by their state. Federal regulations require that these training programs consist of at least 75 hours of training, including at least 16 hours of supervised practical or clinical training and 12 hours of continuing education per 12 month period.

In these requirements for home health aides, PHI lists by state the number of training and clinical hours required for certification of home health aides.

State Nurse Aide Training Requirements

Federal legislation and associated regulations require that Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes employ nurse aides who are trained and evaluated through training programs approved by their state. Federal regulations require that these training programs consist of at least 75 hours of training, including at least 16 hours of supervised practical or clinical training.

In these requirements for nursing aides, PHI lists by state the number of training and clinical hours required for certification of nurse aides.


Caregiver Resources

In an effort to provide helpful training tools and programs for caregivers, here you will find listings of various resources. These listings include family and professional caregivers resources, consumer-directed caregiving resources, and self-care resources for people with disabilities. Various information is included with each resource, such as cost, where available, evidence-based results, and the content of the materials. Many of these products are free and available on the web; others may have costs associated with them.

Check back periodically for updates to these lists.


PAS Center publications

A list of reports and publications produced by the PAS Workforce project and its staff. The citations provide links to abstracts, press releases, and either the entire publication, or information about where to obtain it.

All PAS Center publications related to Workforce PAS

Recent additions:

Kaye, H.S., & LaPlante, M.P. (2012, September). The Need for Personal Assistance Services. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference. San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco.  Read more about the publication, The Need for Personal Assistance Services. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference.

Harrington, C. & Ng, T. (2012, September). Access to Home and Community Based Services. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference. San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco.  Read more about the publication, Access to Home and Community Based Services. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference.

Harrington, C. & Kaye, H.S. (2012, September). Home and Community Based Service Costs and Quality. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference. San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco.  Read more about the publication, Home and Community Based Service Costs and Quality. 2012 Center for Personal Assistance Services State of the Science Conference.


Library

Citations and abstracts of important publications related to Home and community-based PAS. Information on how to obtain the complete text is provided with each citation.

All PAS Workforce publications

Recent additions:

Ingram, C., Lind, A. & Ensslin, B. (2013, August). Uniform Assessment Practices in Medicaid Managed Long-Term Services and Supports Programs. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc..  Read more about the publication, Uniform Assessment Practices in Medicaid Managed Long-Term Services and Supports Programs.

Rowland, D. (2013, August). What would strengthen Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports? Testimony for the Federal Commission on Long Term Care. Washington, DC.: Kaiser Family Foundation.  Read more about the publication, What would strengthen Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports? Testimony for the Federal Commission on Long Term Care.

Dennison, T.H. (2013, August). New York's Nursing Homes: Shifting Roles and New Challenges. Long Beach, CA: United Hospital Fund.  Read more about the publication, New York´s Nursing Homes: Shifting Roles and New Challenges.


PAS Workforce Library

Contains citations to resources related to each state. The library is provided and maintained by the National Clearinghouse on the Direct Care Workforce. Each citation contains an abstract and information about how to obtain the entire version.


Presentations

Presentations given by the PAS Workforce project

All PAS Workforce presentations

Recent additions:

Wiener, J.M (2009, Mar 09) Long-Term Care: Options in an Era of Health Reform. Presented at the Alliance for Health Reform Session on Long-Term Care hosted by Alliance for Health Reform.

Read more about this presentation titled, Long-Term Care: Options in an Era of Health Reform

Scherzer, T. (2006, Nov 07) How do diverse homecare workers address occupational hazards and injury?. Presented at the American Public Health Association 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition hosted by APHA.

Read more about this presentation titled, How do diverse homecare workers address occupational hazards and injury?

Newcomer, R., Scherzer, T. (2006, Nov 07) Who counts? On (not) counting occupational injuries in homecare. Presented at the American Public Health Association 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition hosted by APHA.

Read more about this presentation titled, Who counts? On (not) counting occupational injuries in homecare

The Center for PAS has assembled a list of links to organizations, resources and information available on the web related to PAS Workforce.

All PAS Workforce links

Recent additions: