Economics and Workplace PAS A man in a wheelchair at a computer, with an assistant


About this project

Among the many issues affecting people with disability, the socio-economic factors have a major impact on PAS. With a greater understanding of socio-economic factors, policies and access to PAS services can be improved as well as providing greater information for PAS planning.

For many working-age people with a disability, there are many barriers that prevent working or returning to work. Lack of PAS at work is one key barrier. There is little public funding for workplace PAS, and the ADA does not require employers to provide PAS.

PAS in the workplace are typically construed much more broadly than just help with personal care ADLs, such as eating and toileting. At the PAS Center, we have defined "workplace PAS" to also include "task-related assistance at work, such as readers, interpreters; help with lifting or reaching; re-assignment of non-essential duties to co-workers". Job-related PAS is, in effect, the equivalent of receiving assistance with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) at home, in that it enables the person to fulfill his or her role, either of maintaining the household or performing the job. At the workplace, some forms of job-related PAS could reasonably be requested as a job accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act, but it is generally understood that non-job-related PAS (e.g., for personal care) could not.

To help provide a better understanding of the socio-economic factors effecting PAS, the Center is looking into the two areas of research.

First, this research activity will analyze the relationship between employment and employment supports, the use of technologies, and PAS. Five separate research activities will be conducted.

  • Analyze the relationship between workplace PAS and AT job accommodations and employment outcomes. This study is being conducted by Stephen Kaye.
  • Collect and analyze primary data on workplace PAS, AT, and employment supports. This study is being conducted by Stephen Kaye.
  • Analyze barriers to employment among Medicaid PAS beneficiaries. This study is being conducted by Wayne Anderson and Josh Wiener.
  • Analyze whether AT lessens the need for PAS among older persons with disabilities. This study is being conducted by Marc Freiman and Josh Wiener.
  • Understand the complexity of the economics of PAS differences by age in paying for PAS in the community. Study conducted by Mitchell LaPlante.

Second, this research activity will analyze the role of tax laws that affect reimbursement for PAS. Although tax policies are one way to improve assess to PAS and provide economic support to family caregivers, current federal and state policies offer limited assistance and these are typically in the form of tax credits and deductions. This will involve two projects.

  • Examine federal tax policies related to reimbursement for PAS. Study conducted by Michael Morris and Steve Mendelsohn.
  • Collect and examine state tax policies related to reimbursement for PAS. Study conducted by Michael Morris and Steve Mendelsohn.

Resources


Tax Issues

Information regarding tax laws that affect PAS users:


State Medicaid Infrastructure Grant

Since 2001, the Medicaid Infrastructure Grant (MIG) program has provided federal funding for state initiatives to support the competitive employment of people with disabilities. States can use MIGs to develop Medicaid supports for working people with disabilities, such as Medicaid Buy-In programs and greater availability of personal assistance services. The program is administered by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) within the Department of Health and Human Services.

Actvities in Workplace PAS of the Medicaid Infrastructure Grantees

State Medicaid Infrastructure Grants contact list


West Virginia University's International Center for Disability Information/Job Accommodation Network

The Job Accommodation Network is a service run by the West Virginia University's International Center for Disability. JAN's mission is to facilitate the employment and retention of workers with disabilities by providing employers, employment providers, people with disabilities, their family members and other interested parties with information on job accommodations, entrepreneurship, and related subjects.

JAN Resources:

Workplace PAS Teleconferences

New! The ICDI is involved in hosting a series of free teleconferences that will allow employers to learn more about PAS, as well as to tell JAN what their experiences have been with PAS in the workplace.

Learn more: http://pas.icdi.wvu.edu


State by State Workplace PAS Data Available Map of the United States

State Resources for Employment of Persons with Disabilities

A compilation of agencies and resources available, by state, for people searching for information, advocacy or assistance with employment of persons with disabilities.


Promising Practices

The Center for Personal Assistance Services is conducting a study of employers and workplace personal assistance services. The study involves interviewing businesses and organizations of all types to determine the criteria for selecting promising practices. Then, case studies are conducted on companies and organizations that provide PAS in the workplace. Below are the promising practices.


PAS Center publications

A list of reports and publications produced by the Economics of PAS project and its staff. Included in this lists are reports and publications related to PAS in the Workplace. The citations provide links to abstracts, press releases, and either the entire publication, or information about where to obtain it.

All PAS Center publications related to the Economics of PAS

Annotated Bibliography on Workplace Personal Assistance Services

Recent additions:

Harrington, C., Ross, L., Mukamel, D. & Rosenau, P. (2013, June). Improving the Financial Accountability of Nursing Facilities. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured.  Read more about the publication, Improving the Financial Accountability of Nursing Facilities.

Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. (2013, June). Overview of Nursing Facility Capacity, Financing, and Ownership in the United States in 2011. Washington, D.C.: Author.  Read more about the publication, Overview of Nursing Facility Capacity, Financing, and Ownership in the United States in 2011.

LaPlante, M.P. (2013). The Woodwork Effect in Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 25:2, pp.161-180. doi: 10.1080/08959420.2013.766072 Read more about the publication, The Woodwork Effect in Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports.


Library

Important publications related to the Economics of PAS. Included in this lists are publications related to PAS in the Workplace. Abstracts and information on how to obtain the complete publication is provided with each citation.

All publications related to the Economics of PAS

Recent additions:

The SCAN Foundation (2013, September) Extended Stay Nursing Facility Admissions for California's Medicare-Medicaid Enrollees, 2006-2008. Long Beach, CA. The SCAN Foundation. Read more about the publication, Extended Stay Nursing Facility Admissions for California´s Medicare-Medicaid Enrollees, 2006-2008.

Ingram, C., Lind, A. & Ensslin, B. (2013, August). Uniform Assessment Practices in Medicaid Managed Long-Term Services and Supports Programs. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc..  Read more about the publication, Uniform Assessment Practices in Medicaid Managed Long-Term Services and Supports Programs.

Rowland, D. (2013, August). What would strengthen Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports? Testimony for the Federal Commission on Long Term Care. Washington, DC.: Kaiser Family Foundation.  Read more about the publication, What would strengthen Medicaid Long-Term Services and Supports? Testimony for the Federal Commission on Long Term Care.


Presentations

Presentations related to the Economics of PAS. Included in this lists are presentations related to PAS in the Workplace. Links to abstracts, PowerPoint files and summaries are provided.

All presentations related to the Economics of PAS

Recent additions:

Kraus, L. (2007, Nov 06) New promising practices in workplace personal assistance services. Presented at the 2007 Annual Meeting & Exposition hosted by American Public Health Association (APHA).

Read more about this presentation titled, New promising practices in workplace personal assistance services

Kraus, L. (2007, Nov 06) Facilitating workplace personal assistance services (PAS): The role of employment service providers. Presented at the 2007 Annual Meeting & Exposition hosted by American Public Health Association (APHA).

Information about this event titled, 2007 Annual Meeting & Exposition

Jans, L. (2007, Nov 06) Perspectives of people with disabilities who use workplace personal assistance services. Presented at the 2007 Annual Meeting & Exposition hosted by American Public Health Association (APHA).

Information about this event titled, 2007 Annual Meeting & Exposition

The Center for PAS has assembled a list of links to organizations, resources and information available on the web related to the Economics of PAS. Included in this lists are links related to PAS in the Workplace.

All links related to the Economics of PAS

Recent additions:


Ticket to Work

The Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency (Ticket) program is an employment program created in the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 and administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA). It is a voluntary program that offers individuals, age 18 through 64, who are receiving cash benefits under the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program and/or the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program based on disability or blindness, expanded choices for obtaining the services and supports to enter and maintain employment. The ultimate goal of the Ticket to Work program is to assist people receiving Social Security disability benefits in reducing their reliance on disability benefits. The Ticket program also seeks to promote increased self-sufficiency and greater independence for people receiving Social Security disability benefits through work.

For more information please go to the "frequently asked questions" page.

An included table in the website contains Ticket to Work Program statistics for State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies: View the State Agency Ticket Information table.